Frequently asked questions
Does this system have any safety feature (e.g. automatic gas supply cut off)?
To add a new question Yes. There is a flame detector and a solenoid that will shut off the fuel gas if the flame goes out. Another safety feature is the Level Sensor that ensures the U-Tube is filled before starting. There is a gas/air mixture that is flammable and, if the U-Tube is not filled, can escape outside causing a potential fire hazard.go to app settings and press "Manage Questions" button.
The system comes with gas regulator. Is it for connection to the gas cylinder?
The supplied gas regulator does not go on the gas cylinder but is fixed on the back of the instrument. It will handle the pressure straight from propane, butane, or LPG cylinders (20Bar or less). The user needs to provide a hose connection at the cylinder for attachment to the provided hose. They will just use the shut-off valve on the cylinder to provide or turn off the gas.
How much propane gas is consumed when using the Flame Photometer?
It varies a little between 0.2 - 0.3 L/min.
Can acetylene be used with the BWB Flame Photometer?
No. Acetylene can not be used because it is too hot. It could melt some of the materials and the emissions will be shifted in wavelength outside of where we are measuring.
Is it better to use Propane or natural gas for my flame photometer?
In general, Propane is better than natural gas. The lower caloric content in natural gas will not excite the ions as much so you will lose some of the low end sensitivity. Depending on the nature of your samples, that may or may not be an issue. Once an instrument is configured for natural gas it cannot be used for Propane. It would be possible to convert it back to Propane but that would require going inside the instrument and replacing a few parts. Not a very practical situation. If you absolutely must use natural gas it will probably still work for you. I encourage you to use Propane. The bottles are readily available (I use regular barbeque Propane) and if needed, you can get special Instrument Grade Propane from chemical supply houses. I only mention that depending on your samples and how low you need to measure
What value inlet natural gas pressure is recommended for the BWB XP flame photometer? Our customer has the pressure gas distribution in the range of 1.7 to 2.1 kPa. Is it suitable pressure?
That pressure is right on the threshold of what is needed. If it is closer to 1.7 kPa than 2.1 kPa there might be a problem. I recommend Propane/Butane/LPG if at all possible. Can natural gas be obtained in a bottle? If so, that would allow a higher pressure and we would be certain it will work.
What purity of gas do you recommend for the flame photometer, 99.9%, 99.5% or 99.0%?
The purity of gas depends on how much precision you need, the levels you will be measuring and the environment in which you are using the instrument. Most industrial users do well with regular "barbeque" Propane. We have customers that prefer instrument grade. I would try the regular Propane and see if you get good results before going to the more expensive grades. If you want to use Butane you may need to go to a higher grade from a chemical supply house.
In the manual you suggest that butane is better for Barium Ba readings. What about Sodium Na readings? Do Na readings show increased accuracy in butane vs. propane?
There is no increased accuracy with Sodium using either Propane or Butane.
Gas Requirements: What pressure and flow rate of gas is required for the BWB flame photometer? Can it work off gas cylinders (small 5/10kg canisters) or 'gas containers'? We do have pressurized propane gas lines within the building but if the system was installed into an area where there was no gas supply.
The obvious advantage of the BWB Flame Photometer is that it is a small, compact unit, easily transported and fits into a small space. We want to install the unit within a fume hood enclosure with an extract of 0.5 to 1m/s. Would this be sufficient to remove the heat generated from the flame? If the ambient temperature was fluctuating, would the calibration be affected?
Your desire to enclose the instrument in a fume hood should be OK. The amount of heat generated is not as much as hotter spectrophotometer types and that flow rate should be very adequate to remove all the heat. The calibration will be somewhat affected by ambient temperature fluctuations. The amount would be determined by just how much fluctuation there is. However, we have a unique feature we call Calibration Correction. It allows even a multiple point calibration to be easily corrected in less than a minute. This feature can be used not only across the day but over days and weeks. To get a better understanding of this feature please view the video on our website
Can the Flame Photometer be put in a Fume Hood?
Does BWB Technologies USA require a Water Separator as all of the other Flame Photometer manufacturers do?
We do not use a water separator nor is one needed with our BWB Flame Photometer. Other makers use a much higher air pressure and requirethe water separator. Our compressed air is lower and does not have the issue of water falling out. A test was completed using a humidity chamber and the only way that water came out was to have a steaming bath in the chamber where the compressor was drawing up the visible steam
What does Multi Mode mean and how do we switch on this option?
I made calibration for sodium Na, Potassium K, Calcium Ca. When I switch to View Calibration there is written for K (on the raw, where raw data is shown) Crect’d, what does it mean?
Calibrating 4 or 5 ions at one time on multimode using a BWB flame photometer and explanation of "drift"
The system can do multi-point calibrations. How many points?
Multi-point calibrations can be done with up to 10 points (plus Blank) for each ion on the XP and XP Plus. The BIO and BIO-943 up to 5 points (plus Blank).
When can we use one point and multi-point calibration with a BWB XP flame photometer?
How do I Set the Decimal Point on the BWB XP Flame Photometer? Is it with the Ion Resolution?
Is it possible to convert the results displayed in ppm to µmol/L? Can your flame photometer convert ppm in µmol/L?
Is it possible to save the calibration values on a BWB XP flame photometer?
Once a calibration is done on an ion it remains until it is either erased by the operator, recalibrated, or adjusted using the Calibration Correction feature. Each ion is independent so these actions can be done to any or all ions. The Calibration Correction is particularly useful so a full calibration does not need to be done very often. The instrument can be corrected over days, weeks, and even months.
Does the BWB flame photometer require a period of time to warm up before I can begin using it?
Yes, all flame photometers require a period of time to reach thermal equilibrium. The exact time will depend on the conditions of the local environment. On average if the ambient is say 20 C and the target is 32 C then warm-up should be achieved in 40 min.
Can either methanol or butanol be used as a diluent for my Flame Photometer?
Could you please explain to me why it is good to use Diluent Concentrate, how does it react?
If we prepare the standard solution strictly following the operation process with a value of 50ppm, does the value show on the screen have any possibility of not showing 50ppm? Should we mix the Standard solution well in advance?
Proper Environment for using the BWB Flame Photometer and tips for stability
My FP won't light "no flame ignition on startup"
My readings are not stable?
How do I raise the aspiration rate on my BWB Flame Photometer so more sample is introduced into the flame analysis system?
We purchased a BWB flame photometer and the results or detection is not correct for Calcium. Our sample is a Fertilizer. This has 50% P2O5 and 10% Nitrogen in the form of Urea and 10% Calcium Oxide. The sample has a pH of 1.75 in 1 % by weight solution. Instead of expected reading of 71 ppm, it will only result to 3 to 5 ppm
The phosphate ion is an extreme contaminant to Ca analysis. There could be some present from the P2O5, either as a contaminant or through unknown reactions. It does not take much to interfere. Is there any way to know if it is present? Another thing I see is the pH is very low. You might try to raise the pH but not enough to precipitate out the Calcium Hydroxide. Try Ammonia solution to not add other ions. Let me know if this helps.
I tried to increase the pH of solution to analyse and it has no effect by adding Ammonia Solution. Different pH is adjusted and the reading is the same from pH 2 to 8 and no precipitates as above 9 is having precipitates, solution became hazy. The reading of my sample is expected to be around 34 ppm. I do standard calibration of 100 ppm in single point. I also did 2 point calibration and reading is still low at 5 ppm. We always analyse the content of P2O5 presence in our sample and the presence of P2O5 in sample is ranging from 85 – 120 ppm P2O5
I was hoping it would at least show an improvement. It is going to require some research to figure this out. The only way I can think of is to make samples that omit each component and test to see which one is supplying the interfering species. These should go through the normal manufacturing processes. Include any "inert" ingredients, like binders or flow agents, which might be present.
I have made a test of which I reduce the pH of standard by adding Urea Phosphate crystals to make the pH of the standards became 2.75. The result is the same as expected with the samples but I am not sure if I am following the correct procedure. I add Urea Phosphate crystals to Ca calibration standard and then it gave good results in the expected range. Is it OK to add to the Ca Calibration standard?
Good to hear that you have good results now. Yes, it is OK to add to the calibration standard, within reason. What you have done we call a matrix correction. By adding the species that is causing the interference it "reacts" the same way as in the sample. Now, when doing the calibration, you tell the instrument that you are calibrating at 100ppm but there is a fraction that is not available for measurement because of the interferent, so it is seeing less than the 100ppm. The instrument takes the lower signal and calls it 100ppm. When the sample is run it too has the same fraction that is not available so it will have the same lowering of the signal and the instrument reports the results that are now corrected for the interferent. For the best results the interfering species should be close to the same concentration as in the sample. There is a slight interference on Ca from Na, depending on the concentration. You might want to correct for that by adding the appropriate amount of Na to the Ca Standard.
Our samples include serum, urine, sweat, drink (soda/milk). Please confirm they can be used with your flame photometer.
These items certainly can be analyzed with flame photometry. In fact they were some of the first materials analyzed when it was invented over 70 years ago. These samples will need some form of preparation (dilution, de-proteinizing, etc.) prior to running through the instrument. Our literature is rife with various methods of preparation and we have some of them in our Guide to Flame Photometry. You need to determine which preparations are needed for your samples.
How do I ensure precision results?
Brine sample preparation and tips for measuring Barium; underground wastewater with the BWB Flame Photometer
Determination of lithium in blood serum using flame photometry
How is mmol/l converted into ppm?
To convert into mmol/l divide ppm by the atomic mass of the ion in question (6.94 for Li). When diluting the Standard Concentrates in ppm to mmol/l be sure to do so at 20 Degrees C
Can we measure K and Na in bio diesel using the BWB-XP?
It depends on what stage of production you want to measure. The actual biodiesel cannot be run through the instrument. It will attack several of the components and will change the flame temperature. It is usually the waste portion that is measured to make sure the Na and K compounds are fully washed out. Many of these are soap-like compounds and are washed out with water. As long as it is toward the last of the wash so there is not much "soap" it should be OK. The first of the wash would have too much "soap" and would foam inside the Mixing Chamber causing erratic readings.
Measuring Sodium and Potassium in Cheese with the BWB XP; comparison of flame photometry with ICP and AAS
Producing standards for KCL measuring; concentrations and dilutions levels
Is the BWB Flame Photometer suitable for use with sample concentrations containing 0.1ml per liter sulphuric acid?
That level of sulphuric acid will be OK to use
Is it possible to use the BWB Flame Photometer with HF in the sample?
Even at low concentrations HF acid should not be used. It will attack the stainless steel capillary on the Nebuliser and Burner, the silicone U-Tube/Waste tubing, the Level Sensor, and the glass Drain Cup. It might take some time to cause a failure of these components at low concentrations but it will happen eventually. The use of HF will void the warranty
Is the BWB XP instrument suitable for Measuring Lithium and Barium in iron oxide?
Sample measurement of polymer samples. The sample is diluted liquid condition of polymer with NaOH solution and the concentration of it is about 24-25%.The client wants to measure the concentration of Na of this sample. According to the customer, it is difficult to measure Na by reason of high concentration; it can be diluted with DI water.
The sample will need to be diluted. At 25% NaOH that is 250g/l or 144g/l of Na. Doing a 1000:1 dilution (1ml diluted to 1 liter) gives 144mg/l Na. This would be the minimum dilution needed. It would be better to dilute an additional 10 times (10,000:1 or 0.1ml diluted to 1 liter) to give 14.4mg/l. That will put them in the range where the Na is very well behaved with little interferences. There could be a problem with the polymer portion. If it does not precipitate out when diluting it could clog the nebuliser or coat the mixing chamber. Both would then need to be cleaned often
Relationship of Ba and Ca using a BWB flame photometer
Ba poses issues. There cannot be any Ca present when measuring Ba. The other ions will interfere with each other at concentrations above 100ppm. The samples will need to be diluted to avoid these interferences.
Calcium measurement in Chemical Fertilizers containing CaCO3 or CaF2 or CaSO4 using flame photometry
The measurement of Ca can be difficult in many types of samples and fertilizer is one of them. The problem is that all of the anions will interfere with the measurement and the Ca needs to be separated from them. This will entail quite a bit of chemical techniques. There are two main types of separations to get the Ca out. If the sample is a solid the use of a Lithium Acetate solution to extract the Ca out has been successful. For liquid samples the Ca is precipitated as the oxalate and re-dissolved with perchloric acid. In our "A Guide to Flame Photometer Analysis", there are a few examples of how to measure Ca. Although those methods are not specific for fertilizers, you can try them anyway. The techniques and chemicals would be the same.
BWB-XP and UrineCan the BWB-XP measure urine samples up to 200 mmol/l?
How do I convert ppm to mmol/l?
How do I use the BWB Flame Photometer to make Calcium (Ca) and Sodium (Na) measurements in animal feeds?
I see no serious problems measuring Na. The Na will be re-dissolved and can be measured in the normal manner. It will not be affected very much by the other ions at their expected concentrations. For Ca, the proteins would be burned off with the ashing method. I am not sure that the phosphates will be gone with ashing. If not, I have a reference to use EDTA to chelate the Ca to "protect" it from the phosphate. I have not tried this yet to know if it works. I do see a slight problem. If the levels of the other ions are present in the listed table (page 4 of the digestion procedure 3.0-E) the Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn will lower the Ca results. You might be able to compensate by adding these elements to the Calibration Standards (and Blank) if you know they are present in the sample. If they are in the calibration solutions but not in the sample, then the Ca reading will be high. How will they know if they are present? If they are using another method to determine them it should be done first to see if they are present and then they can compensate. They will need to do some investigating to see how well it will work. The only other issue is the digestion process uses nitric and hydrochloric acid mixture. I know that most of the acid will be used up in the digestion but if not it could attack the stainless steel needle in our nebuliser. Something to be aware of.
Is the BWB flame photometer suitable for measuring all 5 ions in water samples in natural environments?
Yes, the BWB-XP is ideally suited to be used with waters from lakes, streams, rivers, and lagoons. Depending on the concentrations of the ions the samples will probably need to be diluted for the measurement and the reading then multiplied by the dilution factor to get the final result. The ranges for each ion are: Na= 0-1000ppm, K= 0-1000ppm, Li= 0-1000ppm, Ca= 10-1000ppm, Ba= 30-3000ppm However, we do not recommend that routine measurements be used at the higher concentrations. For best results the samples should be diluted so they are around 100ppm or less
What does the term 'Matrix" mean relative to the BWB Flame Photometer measuring system?
Matrix is the set of all the species that are present. Some of them we want to measure, some of them interfere with what we want to measure, and some of them are in the background that may or may not affect our results. For example, wine samples have alcohol in them. We know that alcohol will affect the flame which in turn affects the results so we want to add alcohol in our standards to try to get the standards to have a similar matrix as a sample. Now, the wine also has other things in it like colorants, flavors, and bits of grape peels. Those would be much harder to add in the correct amount and I'm not sure that they would've interfered very much anyway so I choose to not add them to my standards matrix
When do we need the Diluent Concentrate? Previously we've used standards with ion exchanged water of good quality. Is this ok with the BWB-XP?
The Diluent Concentrate does not need to be used with all samples. It is a non-ionic surfactant that is used to adjust the surface tension. You may see a slight increase in signal because the drops in the mist will be smaller so more make it to the flame. Its real use is when samples have materials that affect the surface tension, like alcohols, proteins, oils, or fats. Using the Diluent Concentrate in the samples and standards will help to make the surface tension the same with both to give better results. If the samples are simple salt solutions it is not needed at all. It is very important to use good DI water and I see that you are doing so with an exchange resin bed.
How do you properly detect Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K) in blood serum samples? The sample concentrate which user is detecting is below: Na : 3218.39 ± 34.48ppm (equals to 140.0 ± 1.5mmol/L). K : 196.47 ± 5.88ppm (equals to 5.01 ± 0.15mmol/L). Please confirm that the sample above could be detected by BWB-XP.
Is it possible for your flame photometer to measure continuously by aspirating samples from a pipe?
How do I measure Sodium Na in sewage water using flame photometry?
What is the Flame Photometry Method for analyzing Ca in fertilizer with Phosphates present in the sample with a BWB Flame Photometer? Our samples are NPK + Ca Fertilizer and our Ca does not give the correct reading because of the interference of Phosphate present in the sample. What is the method for analyzing Ca using the BWB XP flame photometer with this type of sample?
Is it possible to measure to measure a concentration of Potassium in KCN (Potassium Cyanide) and KOH (Potassium Hydroxide) solution?
I do not see any reason that this would not be able to be measured. It has the high pH to keep it from forming cyanide gas. However, I would recommend you use a fume hood over the chimney exhaust in case some cyanide gas forms in the flame. If so, you not only do not want to breathe it, there could be some corrosion in the chimney over time.
What matrices can be analyzed? Would the presence of heavy metals (such as uranium) interfere with the analysis? Have you analyzed Lanthanide series elements such as Gadolinium? The BWB is a low temperature flame emission spectrometer. As such, it only measures Na, K, Li, Ca,
The BWB is a low temperature flame emission spectrometer. As such, it only measures Na, K, Li, Ca, and Ba. That is one of the main advantages for most users, as long as these are the only elements one is interested in. Most of the other elements do not interfere making the analysis much easier. The Lanthanides cannot be done.
In order to ensure sampling precision, can we use transfer pipette?
Yes. Whatever method and equipment used the result will depend on the tolerance of the equipment and technique. It is best to use the same methods of dilution on both calibration standards and samples. Be aware of contamination.
How do you prepare Ba standards which also contain ions? As an example: 50ppm, 70ppm, 80ppm, 90ppm, 10ppm Ba standards which also have Na 30ppm, K, 30ppm, Ca 20ppm.
How do I dilute the BWB calibrating solutions?
We supply 10,000 mg/l calibration solutions that can be made into these. For all these solutions the ions in question are all single valence so mEq/l is the same as mmol/l. To convert mmol/l to mg/l, multiply by the atomic mass. For example, the Li=15mmol/l (same as 15mEq/l) is multiplied by 6.94g/mole giving 104.1 mg/l. To make this from our solutions it is easiest to use the equation V1xC1=V2xC2. If you want 500 ml of 104.1 mg/l that would be 0.500 liter x 104.1 mg/l = X x 10,000 mg/l. Solve for X = 0.0052 liter. So take 5.2 ml of the 10,000 mg/l solution and dilute to 500 ml.
How do I measure Sodium Na concentrations and dilutions using a flame photometer? My greater question was if the output dilution rate of 1:200 was in the normal range of the BWB instrument. Our solutions are between 2 and 170 mmol/L in Sodium concentration. After the incoming Na concentrations to the photometer are between 0.01 and 0.85 mmol/L. If I have done my math correctly this would be a ppm concentration range of 0.23 to 19.6. I believe this is within the BWB photometer's specifications. I do possibly have the option to dilute at a rate of only 1:50 if need be.
A 200:1 dilution is very good for the BWB-XP. Your calculations are correct and you will be in the best range for measuring Na with a single point calibration
How do I measure Na Sodium in mouse urine using flame photometry? I am interested in setting my BWB flame photometer to most accurately measure sodium in mouse urine. I was going to set up a multipoint calibration with different concentrations of sodium, and I read that the other chemicals in the solution could alter my calibration curve i.e. urea. What is the best way to calibrate for sodium in mouse urine?
The key to most biological samples is to dilute sufficiently to lower the interferences. If the Na in mouse urine is ~200meq/l I would dilute by at least 200:1. The higher the Na concentration the more dilution. Get it so it is around 1meq/l or less. (Of course, multiply the reading by the dilution factor to get the original concentration.) You are correct to do a multiple point calibration, even at lower concentrations, to get the best results. To help mitigate the action of urea you can do matrix compensation techniques. When making your calibration standards, add urea to your diluent solution at a concentration close to what the urea will be in the diluted samples. With urea at the same concentration in all the standards and test samples it will have the same effect on them all and you will be "compensated" for its presence. Urine can have other chemicals, like proteins, so it will help to make your diluent solutions with the Diluent Concentrate (surfactant). Also, to lessen build up of proteins, urea, etc., use a solution containing the Decon 90 often to clean out the Nebuliser and mixing Chamber, especially after you are done using for the day. Run it for about 20 minutes before shutting down the flame
Minimum sample volumes for a BWB flame photometer We have a customer who asks about the minimum sample volume enough to introduce in the instrument for good measurements; could you please help me? This customer is user using between 100-200 µl. Concentration of this samples is around: Sodium Na: 140meq/l, Potassium K: 5 meq/l, Lithium Li: 0,6 meq/l.
Our flame photometer uses about 1-2 ml of final sample to get a reading. That is 10x what your customer is doing now. However, their concentrations of Na and K will need to be diluted for best results. The Na should be diluted by 100x or 200x. The K can be diluted by 10x. Both of these will bring the final volume where a measurement can be made. The Li will be a bit low concentration at a 10x dilution but may still be okay.
What is the minimum amount of sample for BWB-XP? We sometimes receive inquiries from end users in pharmaceutical field who use automatic flame photometer made by Instrumentation Laboratory(IL) in Italy. The one specific feature of IL flame photometer is measurement of particle sample (e.g the minimum is 20 μl). Then could you please advise us, 1. How much amount of sample is the minimum for BWB-XP? 2. The idea to measure small amount of sample?
What is the difference between the XP, XP Plus and BIO flame photometers?
What is the main difference between flame photometer and Atomic Absorption?
There are quite a few differences between FP and AA spectrometry. Both introduce the ions into the flame where they are put in an excited state. With FP, as the excited state "relaxes" it emits light of a specific color that is then detected. The more light detected the more ion is in the sample. With AA, the excited state will absorb certain colors. A white light containing all colors is passed through the flame and the excited ions will absorb certain colors. The degree of absence of those colors is a measure of the concentration in the sample
Which is the best model for drinking water analysis?
Drinking water does not have high levels of dissolved salts so should be easy to measure. An XP will work fine but I would recommend the XP Plus if they do not mind using the Internal Reference, meaning needing to add either Li or Cs. It will give a bit better results. It really depends on if they are price sensitive and the lower cost of the XP will be too high.
Is it possible to use the BWB Flame Photometer as opposed to ISE Analyzer?
The BWB flame photometer can be used with biological samples. Flame Photometry was the original method used back in the 1960's when they went from wet methods to instrumentation. Most often the use is for Na, K, and, sometimes, Li. Ca measurements are problematic because the samples require the Ca to be extracted away from the rest of the constituents
What is the range of detection (min to max) for Na, K, Li, Ca, Ba?
What is the gas flow rate? Fixed or varied?
Are the calibration solutions delivered with calibration certification?
Yes, the calibration standards are provided with Certificates of Analysis and Safety Data Sheets
What are the limits of detection for Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K)?
Na : 0.02ppm = 8.7 x 10-4 mmol/LK : 0.02ppm = 5.1 x 10-4 mmol/L. Note: These limits of detection are in the best of circumstances. Not all users will be able to achieve them
What is the measurement accuracy for each of the 5 elements that the flame photometer detects?
Accuracy is dependent on many factors so it is difficult to give an exact number. During final testing when we build them we look for 1% or better. This is with simple salt solutions which are easier than serum. Most users with these samples are happy to achieve within 5% which they can do well with the BWB-XP.
What is the accuracy of analysis with the BWB XP Flame Photometer?
It is difficult giving you a definite number. The results are dependent on many factors like the nature of the samples and operator technique. With simple salts diluted to less than 100ppm we routinely get within 1%. Most samples are not simple salt solutions and have many other components that can complicate the measurement. First, there are two things to know before starting. 1. We provide standards at a nominal value of 10,000 mg/l. They are not exactly 10,000 mg/l but we include the Certificate of Analysis that give you the tested value of each batch. For example, the actual value may be 9,980 mg/l. This is the number that should be used to be the most accurate. For my discussions here I will use 10,000 mg/l for ease of use. 2. Again, to be the most accurate all solutions and volumetric ware should be at 20 degrees Celsius. Note that mg/l is the same as ppm only at 20 degrees. Slight deviations from 20 degrees will not throw off the results by much but it is much more difficult to factor in. Most users do not need to be that precise and, most of the time, flame photometry is only good to three significant figures or less. The general formula to use when diluting is: (Concentration 1) x (Volume 1) = (Concentration 2) x (Volume 2).So, if I start with a 10,000mg/l solution and want to make 100ml of a 100mg/l solution I set up my formula as:(10,000mg/l) x (X) = (100mg/l) x (100ml)Solve for X = 1ml. This means that taking 1ml of the 10,000mg/l and dilute it to 100ml will give me a 100mg/l solution. Remember the actual value can be different so, from my example above, you would get a 99.8mg/l solution. If you wanted an exact 100mg/l solution you would use 9,980 mg/l in the formula and you would need to measure out 1.002ml. Rather than trying to measure 1.002ml, when the instrument is calibrated you can enter 99.8
How do I make a calibration curve using graphing paper?
Start with graph paper (a grid layout). Along the bottom axis indicate your concentrations of each of the calibration solutions, keeping them properly spaced. For example, Blank (0ppm), 25ppm, 50ppm, and 75ppm would be equally spaced at whatever distance you choose. Along the vertical axis you will put the Raw readings. First find out what they are and write them down so you know how to space them. When you look at the Raw readings they can get quite large and you will see them changing. It is best to round them off to the first three or four numbers. For example, 31,245 would be rounded to 31,200 and 31,278 would be 31,300. Use these set of numbers to space your indications on the axis keeping the proportions between them. Find the intersections of each concentration and its Raw reading and put a dot there. When all of them are done draw a smooth curve connecting the dots as best you can. You do not need to go exactly through each dot. The best curve you can draw that is smooth and gets as close to all the dots as you can. When reading a sample get the Raw and find it on your vertical axis. Go over level until you intersect the curve. At that intersection, go straight down to the bottom axis. Read the concentration on the bottom axis. You will need to figure out how far from your known concentrations to get the concentration of the sample. For example, if it falls half way between 25ppm and 50 ppm it is 37.5ppm.If you need more detail there are many sources on-line or in mathematics textbo
What is the consumable that the customer needs to purchase after sometime?
How do I clean a BWB flame photometer? My flame photometer was supplied with DECON 90 cleaning solution. Is this the only product I can use to clean the instrument?
The Decon 90 is a non-ionic surfactant. Other cleaning products will work as long as they are non-ionic. The ionic types usually have a Na salt of various aliphatic sulfonates or sulphates. When trying to clean them with ionic types, the Na deposits on the inside surfaces and makes it dirtier! The non-ionic types use ethoxylated alkyl phenols, fatty acid amides, or polymers of oxides and thus have no ions to accumulate inside the burner/mixing chamber.
How do I set up the nebuliser on my new BWB Flame Photometer?
The adjustment on the nebuliser should never be changed. At the present time it is too difficult to explain the process to re-set it. We are working on a method for users but it is not ready. If it has been changed it is best to replace it.
Please explain in detail what “de-proteinizing solution” and “Decon 90” are?
De-proteinizing solution is any cleaning agent that works well cleaning off proteins. Decon 90 is one of these types of cleaning agents that we provide. Proteins in samples can clog the capillary tube on the nebuliser and, with extended use, form a coating in the mixing chamber and burner tube where they can affect the results.
A customer told me that a DECON 90 cleaning would result in a high Na readout. Is DECON 90 a solution of NaOH?
How often do I need to clean my BWB?
PC Software: Can the save path of the report can be changed? (Don’t save in disk C.)
The software needs to originally save it where it does. After it saves it there, you can go get it (click on "Reports" button) and transfer it to where ever you want. Another file, to disc, or as an attachment to an email. You can even print it out!
How do I use the FP-PC feature to provide captured data to email you for technical support?
Measurements in Brine samples
Is it correct that you have to do the calibration correction each time you turn off and turn on the instrument? What is the easier way to do the calibration correction rather than doing full 10 point calibration each time we start the equipment?
Yes, a correction at a minimum and full calibration of readings prove not to be accurate enough.
In 10 point calibration- it seems that one is going to be blank (0.0 ppm-using DI or distilled water) and 9 reference samples. Or am I doing something wrong with my data entry?
Blank is point 0- so it is blank + a max of 10 points of calibration (it may be necessary to do 10 points- trial and error will tell).
I had not used decon in preparing the calibration standards earlier- I think the manual said it was not a must. Please clarify.
Decon is for cleaning, it contains high concentration of Na and should never be added to samples. Diluent concentrate (Brij35) is an organic surfactant and helps to achive more repeatable results- it can be added at a rate of 1-2ml per Ltr.
Does it make sense to have two sets of standards- one that pertains to brine type composition where we have high concentration differences as discussed below and have one standard with equal concentration - as I have made and calibrate each time the same type changes significantly?
No- the best course of action would be to estimate the likely range of the readings expected and calculate the ratios of the average of each of the ion ranges, then make calibration standards in approximately those ratios. ie. based on the single example you gave, there was approx. 3 times as much Na as K so, if diluting by 1:125, make your highest standard with say 1000 ppm Na and 300 ppm K (similarly with Li and Ca but maybe use a minimum of 10-20ppm of Li and Ca to give a reasonable range) and then dilute that down further to give you your other standards as required. There is no point in calibrating Li at 1000 ppm if you are only ever going to measure < 10 ppm. There will always be some cross -sensitivities between ions and with such high concentrations these may be a source of too much error. The above approach will help to reduce those errors to acceptable levels.
I am somewhat doubtful that it will be possible to get an accurate measurement of Ca at such a relatively low concentration compared to Na- is it worthwhile to go through a new set of calibration standards with above suggested ratios (1:10 for Ca:Na)?
The sensitivity of the Ca channel seems to be approx. 480 counts per ppm. You will need to compare this figure with the variation in raw count you get when taking consecutive readings on the same sample- if the ratio (sensitivity/variation) is too low then it will be difficult to make acccurate Ca determinations.
I am measuring Brine solutions and need guidance on calibration methods.
Determining Ca when Na is present. Since the Na is very strong in comparison with Ca the effects of cross- sensitivity on Na is very small and can generally be ignored. However, the influence of Na on Ca can be substantial. For determination of Ca in the presence of Na a correction is carried out by the BWB-XP firmware to take account of the overlapping spectra. During Ca measurment a value is deducted from the Ca signal dependent on the Na signal. The scale of this adjustment is determined and stored in an internal parameter during a correction procedure.
Internal Reference Standard
The website states that the single-point and multi-point optimal range (ion dependant) is up to around 100 ppm and 1000 ppm, respectively. Is there a recommended upper limit for each ion in which non-linearity causes significant decrease in accuracy/repeatability? Can you briefly explain how the "IRS" internal lithium standard works?
Please see HERE for Internal Reference Standard document.
What is the calibration correction method and an example when using a BWB Flame Photometer?
Multi Mode and Calibration Correction on the BWB Flame Photometer:
I used the equipment without any new calibration or correction. Is it correct that you have to do the calibration correction each time you turn off and turn on the instrument? What is the easier way to do the calibration correction rather than doing full 10 point calibration each time we start the equipment? Also the calibration standards I made are based on equal concentration of each of the elements Ca, Li, K and Na anywhere from 30 to 1000 ppm. While testing one brine solution that has about 90000 ppm of Na, 27000 ppm of K, 719ppm of Li, 490 ppm of Ca, 2500 ppm of Mg – I am getting – after dilution of 1:125) about 88000 ppm of Na, 22000 ppm of K, 725 ppm of Li and 15175 ppm of Ca. So for Ca – there is a big error – instead of 490 ppm we are getting 15175 ppm. I see in your manual a mention of big impact of Na on Ca and a correction factor being applied – however it does not seem to be correct. Let me know your thoughts on how to address it. Thanks.
Since I am doing the recalibration with new concentrations – do I reset calibration first in Config – Rest? I have attached new calibration standard – please note that in last 2 standards – the Ca is at 0 ppm – is this a problem or OK?
How do I check the hours run on my flame photometer?
Hours run at Maintenance->Show Info.
Is it possible to change the time to our local time and the US format (mm/dd/YY)?
Sorry - there is currently no way to change the date format on the FP.